The harmfulness of lightning is mainly manifested in various physical effects caused by lightning discharge, which has great destructive power. According to its failure mechanism, it can be divided into electrical effect, thermal effect, electromagnetic effect and mechanical effect.
(1) Electrical effects
The electric effect means that when lightning discharges, it can generate surge voltages of up to tens of thousands of volts or even hundreds of thousands of volts, causing electrical circuits and equipment such as generators, transformers, and circuit breakers of the power system to be burnt, causing insulation breakdown and short circuit. Lead to the burning and explosion of flammable, flammable and explosive materials.
(2) Thermal effect
Thermal effect refers to the phenomenon that lightning strikes an object to produce a high temperature and melts, vaporizes or burns.
(3) Electromagnetic effect
The damage of lightning electromagnetic effect is divided into two aspects: on the one hand, it generates electrostatic induction and electromagnetic induction on the nearby conductor during lightning discharge, causing sparks to cause fire or explosion, or the stride voltage caused by lightning current causes human and animal casualties. Phenomenon; on the other hand, lightning intrusion into the room along overhead lines or metal pipes, endangering personal safety or damaging equipment, that is, lightning wave intrusion.
(4) Mechanical effects
The mechanical effect refers to the electric power generated by the lightning when the lightning passes through the conductor. The electrodynamic force is extremely short, which is much shorter than the mechanical vibration period of the conductor. The conductor often explodes and splits under its action.