Lightning charge refers to the amount of positive and negative charge neutralization of a lightning strike. This amount directly reflects the energy released by a lightning, which is the destructive power of a lightning. So what is the charge of lightning? How to classify?
First, the amount of lightning
The amount of lightning charge is determined by the Thundercloud charge, and there is a lot of randomness. A large number of observations indicate that a lightning discharge charge Q can range from zero coulomb to 1000 coulombs. However, in a lightning strike, their distribution in the same area is consistent with the normal distribution of probability. The discharge of the first negative flash is mostly in the range of 10-20 coulombs.
Whether Thundercloud will flash to the earth is determined by several basic factors, one is the amount of cloud charge, and the other is its electric field strength to the earth. When the potential gradient between the thundercloud and the earth, that is, the electric field strength reaches the breakdown electric field of the atmosphere, a flash strike occurs, and once the flash strike occurs, a sharp charge neutralization occurs between the clouds and the ground.
The reason why lightning is very destructive is mainly because it releases the electric field energy of Thundercloud within a few tens of microseconds, and the instantaneous power is huge. But it can be calculated that the energy released by each flash is only equivalent to the energy released by burning a few kilograms of oil.
Second, the lightning spectrum
The lightning spectrum is an important basis for studying lightning protection. From the lightning wave spectrum structure, the distribution of lightning energy in each frequency band can be learned, so that the magnitude and energy of the lightning impulse within the frequency band of the communication system can be estimated, and lightning protection measures can be determined. In the lightning protection engineering of power system buildings, to understand the spectral distribution of lightning waves, it is also possible to optimize the design scheme and clarify the content of lightning protection to achieve economical, reasonable, safe and reliable purposes.
Third, the classification of lightning
Lightning is mainly classified according to the location, shape, sound and hazard of lightning.
According to the spatial position of lightning, it can be divided into two types: sunny lightning and thundercloud lightning. Thundercloud lightning includes lightning in the clouds, lightning in the clouds and lightning in the clouds.
According to whether the lightning makes a sound, it can be divided into sound lightning and silent lightning.
According to the shape of the lightning, it can be divided into linear lightning, band lightning, flaky lightning, dendritic lightning and spherical lightning.